Cassondra Williams earned her Ph.D. from The Scripps Institution of Oceanography at U.C. San Diego where she studied working muscle physiology during dives of emperor penguins in Antarctica and cardiovascular physiology of freely diving northern elephant seals.

Cassondra’s work focuses on understanding baseline physiology in diving animals and how physiological responses are altered from natural or anthropogenic disturbances. Her past work includes investigating cardiovascular responses to routine and anthropogenic disturbances in loggerhead marine turtles and freshwater turtles. Her current research with northern elephant seals investigates muscle and cardiovascular physiology during routine diving and in response to natural disturbances.

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